Requirements and Examples of references


General notes:

  • References are listed in numerical order, and in the same order in which they are cited in text. The reference list appears at the end of the paper.
  • Begin your reference list on a new page and title it 'References.'
  • The reference list should include all and only those references you have cited in the text. (However, do not include unpublished items such as correspondence).
  • Use Arabic numerals [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9].
  • Use either square [ ].
  • Abbreviate journal titles in the style used in the NLM Catalog
  • Use Digital Object Identification (DOI) and URLs.
  • Check the reference details against the actual source - you are indicating that you have read a source when you cite it.
  • Be consistent with your referencing style across the document.

General Rules:

  • Enter author's surname followed by no more than 2 initials (full stop).
  • If more than 1 author: give all authors' names and separate each by a comma and a space.
  • For articles with 1 to 6 authors, list all authors. For articles with more than 6 authors, list the first 6 authors then add 'et al.'
  • Only the first word of the article title and words that normally begin with a capital letter are capitalized.
  • Journal titles are abbreviated (to decipher/find correct abbreviations see: PubMed Journals Database
  • Follow the date with a semi-colon;
  • Abbreviate months to their first 3 letters (no full stop)
  • Give the volume number (no space) followed by issue number in brackets
  • If the journal has continuous page numbering through its volumes, omit month/issue number.
  • Abbreviate page numbers where possible, eg: 123-29.

Example of a reference list Articles in Journals

Standard journal article: Halpern SD, Ubel PA, Caplan AL. Solid-organ transplantation in HIV-infected patients. N Engl J Med. 2002 Jul 25;347(4):284-7.

Article published electronically ahead of the print version: Yu WM, Hawley TS, Hawley RG, Qu CK. Immortalization of yolk sac-derived precursor cells. Blood. 2002 Nov 15;100(10):3828-31. Epub 2002 Jul 5.

Journal article on the Internet: Abood S. Quality improvement initiative in nursing homes: the ANA acts in an advisory role. Am J Nurs [Internet]. 2002 Jun [cited 2002 Aug 12];102(6):[about 1 p.]. Available from:

Books and Other Monographs.

Murray PR, Rosenthal KS, Kobayashi GS, Pfaller MA. Medical microbiology. 4th ed. St. Louis: Mosby; 2002.

Chapter in a book: Meltzer PS, Kallioniemi A, Trent JM. Chromosome alterations in human solid tumors. In: Vogelstein B, Kinzler KW, editors. The genetic basis of human cancer. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2002. p. 93-113.

Conference paper: Christensen S, Oppacher F. An analysis of Koza's computational effort statistic for genetic programming. In: Foster JA, Lutton E, Miller J, Ryan C, Tettamanzi AG, editors. Genetic programming. EuroGP 2002: Proceedings of the 5th European Conference on Genetic Programming; 2002 Apr 3-5; Kinsdale, Ireland. Berlin: Springer; 2002. p. 182-91.

Dissertation: Borkowski MM. Infant sleep and feeding: a telephone survey of Hispanic Americans [dissertation]. Mount Pleasant (MI): Central Michigan University; 2002.

Patent: Pagedas AC, inventor; Ancel Surgical R&D Inc., assignee. Flexible endoscopic grasping and cutting device and positioning tool assembly. United States patent US 20020103498. 2002 Aug 1.

Part of a database on the Internet: MeSH Browser [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): U.S. National Library of Medicine; 2002 -   . Meta-analysis; [cited 2017 Dec 1]; [about 1 p.]. Available from: MeSH Unique ID: D017418.

More information:


  1. Kolesnyk M, Stepanova N, Kruglikov V, Rudenko A. The etiological spectrum and antibiotic resistance pattern of bacteria causing uncomplicated urinary tract infections: a ten-year surveillance study (2005- 2015). Ukr.J.Nephr.Dial. 2016;№1(49):39-41. [In Ukrainian]. doi: 10.31450/ukrjnd.1(49).2016.02ю
  2. O'Campo P, Dunn JR, editors. Rethinking social epidemiology: towards a science of change. Dordrecht: Springer; 2012. 348 p.
  3. Miyata T, Eckardt K-U, Nangaku M. Studies of Renal Disorders. Berlin: Springer-Verlag GmbH; 2011. 830 p. doi: 10.1007/978-1-60761-857-7.
  4. Schiraldi GR. Post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: a guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Internet]. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2000 [cited 2006 Nov 6]. 446 p. Available from: DOI: 10.1036/0737302658
  5. Halpen-Felsher BL, Morrell HE. Preventing and reducing tobacco use. In: Berlan ED, Bravender T, editors. Adolescent medicine today: a guide to caring for the adolescent patient [Internet]. Singapore: World Scientific Publishing Co.; 2012 [cited 2012 Nov 3]. Chapter 18. Available from:​10.1142/9789814324496_0018
  6. Stockhausen L, Turale S. An explorative study of Australian nursing scholars and contemporary scholarship. J Nurs Scholarsh [Internet]. 2011 Mar [cited 2013 Feb 19];43(1):89-96. Available from:
  7. Kanneganti P, Harris JD, Brophy RH, Carey JL, Lattermann C, Flanigan DC. The effect of smoking on ligament and cartilage surgery in the knee: a systematic review. Am J Sports Med [Internet]. 2012 Dec [cited 2013 Feb 19];40(12):2872-8. Available from: DOI: 10.1177/0363546512458223
  8. Subbarao M. Tough cases in carotid stenting [DVD]. Woodbury (CT): Cine-Med, Inc.; 2003. 1 DVD: sound, color, 4 3/4 in.
  9. Stem cells in the brain [television broadcast]. Catalyst. Sydney: ABC; 2009 Jun 25.